trō'jən - "...Of courageous determination or energy.  One who shows the pluck, endurance,

     determined energy, or the like, attributed to the defenders of Troy."

Rottweiler Breeder, German Rottweilers, German rottweiler puppies, Rottweiler Stud dog, Rotti puppies, British Columbia, Rotties, Rotts, 

5. 7 Cervical Verterbrae (neck)
6. 8 Dorsal Verterbrae (withers)
7. 5 Dorsal Verterbrae (back)
8. 7 Lumbar Verterbrae (Loin)
9. 8 Sacral Verterbrae (Croup)
10. Tail - 3 to 26 Verterbrae
11. Pelvic Bone (hip)
12. Femur or Upper Thigh
13. Stifle or Knee Joint
14. Patella or Knee Cap


15. Tibia
16. Fibula
17. Hock Joint or heel
18. Hock or Metatarsus
19. Toes or Phalanges
20. Ribs (13 Pairs)
21. Sternum or Breastbone
22. Pastern or Metacarpals
23. Ulna
24. Radius
25. Humerus - Upper Foreleg
26. Shoulder Joint
27. Scapula or Shoulder Blade



Characteristics and Temperament:

The Rottweiler is a medium-large, powerful dog. His compact and substantial build denotes great strength, agility and endurance. On average, males will range from 95 to 135 lbs and 24" to 27" at the shoulder. They are more massive throughout with larger frame and heavier bone than bitches. Bitches will range from 80 to 100 lbs and from 22" to 25" at the shoulder. Animals can be found which are taller or shorter than these measurements, however, they are not considered typical by the breed standard. The Rottweiler is ALWAYS black, with clearly defined markings on cheeks, muzzle, chest and legs as well as over both eyes, that range from tan to deep mahogany. His coat is straight, coarse and of medium length, with an undercoat varying in degree based on climatic conditions. The Rottweiler is a calm and self-confident dog, who has an inherent desire to protect home and family. Personality may range from highly affectionate to extremely aloof. He is not shy nor highly excitable. He is an intelligent and highly trainable dog. He is also very much a companion, often following their family members from room to room in the home. Because of his size and strength, it is imperative that he receive proper socialization and obedience training from an early age. Nervous, shy, excitable or hyperactive individuals are exhibiting traits which are undesirable in an animal the size and strength of the Rottweiler and should be avoided.


The AKC Standard

The Rottweiler is a robust, powerful and loyal breed with pronounced protective instincts. He is an outstanding companion and guard but ownership of a Rottweiler carries much greater than average legal and moral responsibilities, due to traits possessed by this breed, their size and strength. The following information is offered as a guide to prospective Rottweiler buyers who may or may not be aware of all the special qualities possessed by this breed, both positive and negative, so that they can make a more accurate estimate of their needs in relation to the demands of Rottweiler ownership. The Rottweiler is not a breed that fits into every home.


Males range from 24" to 27" at the shoulder and 95-135 lbs in weight. Females are somewhat smaller, 22" to 25" tall and 80 to I 00 lbs. Animals can be found which are taller or shorter than these measurements, however, they should not be considered typical by the breed standard. The Rottweiler is very strong for its size. It has been used in Europe to pull carts and retains the compact musculature desirable in a draft animal. A full grown adult can easily knock a human off his feet, and for this reason the breed is not recommended for the elderly or physically infirm person. Obedience training is a must because of the animal's size and strength; you must be able to maintain complete control of your animal at all times.


Rottweilers are always black with clearly defined markings on cheeks, muzzle, chest, and legs as well as over both eyes. These markings range from rust to mahogany; the darker shades being more desirable. Pigmentation of eyes and mouth should be dark; light eyes or pink mouths are considered faults.


Rottweiler temperaments vary from natural clowns, who are affectionate to almost anyone, to the very reserved, one-person dog. Ideally they should be calm but alert companions. These dogs often follow their masters from place to place in the home, keeping a constant but unobtrusive watch over their loved one. Nervous, shy, excitable or hyperactive individuals are exhibiting traits which are undesirable in an animal the size and nature of the Rottweiler and should be avoided.


This trait varies with the individual dog to some degree, although all have a strong territorial instinct and will defend their master's home, car and property from intruders. Rottweilers have also been known to bully or bluff their owners or other people, a trait that is most disconcerting. This problem is easily prevented through early obedience training and the development of a mutually rewarding working relationship.


Many families have purchased a Rottweiler for this trait, only to discover that it brings with it a considerable moral and legal responsibility. Problems can arise quickly; the dog may not be able to distinguish between a bear hug greeting of a family member, or a cherished friend, and the hostile advances of an intruder, particularly if the greetings between parties includes loud shouts, laughter or screams. Dogs must be carefully schooled to accept your friends into your home but physical contact should be approached carefully until the dog realizes that you belong. Strangers must never come into your yard unannounced, the dog doesn't know the difference between your brother or a burglar. Although the Rottweiler does not usually bite without provocation, even being cornered and held by one of these dogs is a very unnerving experience for meter men, delivery persons or neighbors wandering into the yard while the owner is absent. People expected to be in contact with the dog while the owners are absent should be thoroughly familiar to the dog.


This term is often misunderstood and misused; it can mean something as simple a puppy with no disqualifying faults at the time of sale. Breeders vary on the amount of experience they've had with grading litters, their ability to critically evaluate their own stock and their understanding of what the term "show quality" means. The serious buyer looking for a potential winner or breeding stock had best spend time going to dog shows and talking to exhibitors as well as learning the standard for the breed. Serious and disqualifying faults to avoid include: overshot or undershot bites, missing teeth, long or curly coats, light eyes, hip dysplasia, and unstable temperaments. All lines carry one or more or these traits and your breeder should he able to give you a candid description of what is in your animal's genetic background. One further caution, the nicest puppy in a litter can mature into a very mediocre adult. Be prepared to critically evaluate your dog, because even if you paid a good price, you may still end up with a pet. Show quality prices range from $1,000 and up (US $$)


 Many times breeders will offer puppies with serious faults (bad bites, white spots on the chest and belly, several missing teeth and so forth) for a much lower price, usually $400 to $600. These animals are not for breeding because these are serious genetic faults. The conscientious breeder will require that the animal be spayed, neutered or vasectomized before releasing the AKC registration papers if it has not been done prior to the sale. Breeders may now sell their puppies on the new American Kennel Club "limited registration" certificate which allows the dog AKC privileges of obedience activities but will not allow it to be shown in the conformation ring or used for breeding purposes. These dogs make good companions and often their faults are not detectable to any but the most experienced eyes. Temperaments run the natural gamut. Neutering or spaying does not affect the territoriality or protectiveness of the animals and they make excellent family dogs. THEY MUST NEVER BE BRED.


A great deal of the success you will have with your dog depends upon what happened to your dog before it came to you; genetic background and early conditioning are the results of the breeders’ efforts. The Rottweiler has recently seen a surge in popularity and many of the breeders now advertising in popular dog magazines have had little experience with the breed. Carefully investigate breeders before you buy a puppy. Talk to several breeders and ask them for names of people you can contact who have purchased puppies from them in the last few years. If they guarantee their animals against hip dysplasia or any other contingency, ask for names of people to contact who have had to have money refunded or a dog replaced. Guarantees are poor substitutes for careful breeding practices and sometimes contain clauses which make them worthless. Conscientious breeders have nothing to fear and will be happy to answer your questions.

Not all private breeders are conscientious, but commercial establishments like many guard dog kennels specializing in “attack" or "aggressive" Rottweilers, pet stores and "puppy mills" seldom give the individualized attention needed by puppies and new owners. If your area has a local Rottweiler club (and there are several in all regions of the U.S.), attend meetings or contact them for assistance in locating breeders nearby. Remember though, a referral is not necessarily an endorsement and it is still your responsibility to investigate the breeders you are referred to and make up your own mind about their credentials.


This is a problem in Rottweilers as well as most large breeds of dogs. Puppies should be bought only after careful investigation of the hip dysplasia status of the parents and if possible the grandparents. Both sire and dam should be certified clear of dysplasia by the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA). There is no such thing as OFA puppies as dogs are not certified by the OFA until they have reached their second birthday. The owner of the puppies should be able to produce the reports on the hip status of the parents (on official stationary from the OFA). This is not a guarantee that your puppy will not develop dysplasia later on; research has documented the fact that normal parents can produce litters with one third or more of the puppies dysplastic as adults. Genetics may be the cause of dysplasia but environmental factors such as over-feeding, over-exercise and injury of young animals may also contribute to this disease. Hip dysplasia is almost never detectable in animals younger than six months and then in only the most severe cases. It is a developmental disease in which there is a malformation of the hip joint often causing pain as the dog ages.


The Rottweiler has been developed for its working ability and often blooms when given a chance to work with its master, although there are occasional exceptions. It is very necessary to establish your control of the animal and obedience training is often the easiest and most rewarding way to do so. Your breeder should be able to provide you with guidance in the selection of a training class, however, avoid the very rough trainer, no matter how highly recommended. Rottweilers can often be controlled using verbal reprimands alone, and while they occasionally require strong physical corrections, some trainers tend to be much rougher on Rottweilers than is necessary. Women have been very successful with the dogs in obedience training. Physical mastery of the dog is generally less important than sensitive, patient, and positive training methods. Patience is an important factor in training a Rottweiler.


The Rottweiler is a sensitive, intelligent and loyal animal and usually wants to please its owmer. Occasionally, it can be quite stubborn though, and requires more attenfion. it is imperative that discipline is consistent and firm without being overly rough. A harsh word will often suffice, although sharper corrections are sometimes necessary. Ownership isn't for the timid or very busy person who cannot or is not inclined towards careful supervision of his/her pet.


The adaptibifity of the Rottweiler to small children varies with the individual animal. Many are very tolerant and loving towards toddlers; others resent the sometimes rough treatment an unknowing child can inflict. One serious problem is the size of the dog. Families have been forced to give up much beloved pets because the dog inadvertently caused injuries to small children in the family by bumping into them or knocking them down or into furniture. This bumping is a natural behavior in the Rottweiler, a legacy from the days when the breed was used to herd cattle in Europe. They will "bump" and "herd" children, adults, and other pets. This can be a problem if your home contains young children or elderly family members. Some breeders recommend waiting until the children are at least school age before introducing a Rottweiler into the home. The amount of space in your home, the age of your children, and the amount of time the dog will be in contact with the children should be part of your decision.


Rottweiler puppies frequently adapt well to older dogs or cats in the home, however, older Rottweilers may be more difficult to integrate into a home with existing pets. Dog-to-dog aggression is influenced by the early socialization of puppies, their bloodlines and sex; males are less tolerant of other males than they are of females. Bitches may also be intolerant of other dogs, sometimes of either sex. It is an individual matter and can be controlled to a great extent with obedience training of the offender, a necessity if you anticipate having your dog around other dogs and out in public places.


The Rottweiler's level of destructiveness (digging, chewing, etc.) varies with the age, training, temperament and activity level of the individual. Puppies and young adults less than two years old are the worst offenders. Early training, lots of attention and obedience training with regular work-outs can help, but left alone for long periods of time the dog mav do considerable damage to landscaping, furniture, trees, and personal property. Many breeders recommend crate training the puppy and keeping the dog confined while the owner is away. Dogs and puppies should never be left alone with chew toys as pacifiers; they can tear off sizable chunk and choke in a few minutes. 


Rottweilers should never be staked out on a chain and if this is your only means of confining your dog do not purchase one. A large yard with a six-foot high fence is ideal but adult Rottweilers have been kept successfully in large apartments. The yard is essential if a puppy or young dog is being acquired; it will help to keep the dog exercised and reduce boredom which in turn may prevent destructive behavior. if you don't have the space, consider a smaller or less active breed. Personal commitment on the part of the owner is the most important thing, however, people willing to "walk their dog" on a regular basis will find a more personal and bonding relationship developing than just letting them run by themselves in the yard.


The Rottweiler can tolerate cool temperatures better then excessive heat. The dog may never be left outside in direct sun during the summer: heat strokes comes on very quickly because of the black coat color. Your breeder should be able to advise you on precautions to take for your local climate. The dog must have shelter from the elements, regardless of the locale. The Rottweiler was bred to be a companion, he is not physically or mentally equipped to be left completely outdoors away from his people. In warm to hot weather, taking a thermos of cool water should be automatic whenever you and your dog go out, it can save his life. Additionally, leaving your dog in a parked vehicle in warm weather with the windows closed or barely open can also be extremely dangerous and with the black coat and shorter muzzle length, the Rottweiler is more susceptible to heat stroke than many other breeds.


Having thoroughly acquainted yourself with the standard for the breed, carefully evaluated several breeders, hopefully seen a number of puppies and adults, and satisfied that the breeding of the puppies you are looking at fits your needs, you are ready to select your puppy. Begin by observing the behavior of the dam (and sire, if available). Ideally, the dam will be calm and steady, possibly even curious or friendly toward you. If she is reserved, that is quite acceptable by Rottweiler standards, but the openly hostile female which does not respond to her owner's reassurances, or a shrinking, cowardly, or shy bitch is undesirable. In Germany, the temperament of the breeding stock is tested and those unstable qualities are excluded from breeding. Disqualifying traits include; shyness, nervousness, unwarranted viciousness and emotional instability. The temperament of the sire is important too; it is best to observe both parents, if possible.

Puppies should be playful, inquisitive and trusting of humans. They should submit to gentle handling and respond to their environment. There are several good books available on puppy and dog behavior. Among these are Clarence Pfaffenberger's New Knowledge of Dog Behavior and the Understanding Your Dog by Dr. Michael W. Fox. They are usually available at pet or book shops or they can be ordered.


Depending upon the size, sex, age, and activity level of your dog, it will consume from 10 to 15 lbs. of good quality kibble each week. Good quality kibble costs around $30.00 to $35.00 for 40 lbs. Many breeders advise additional meat, vegetables, and cottage cheese, particularly for puppies. Monthiy food expenses with possible additional vitamin supplements, etc. could easily be more than $50.00 per month. Veterinary care for routine immunizations, wormings, etc. vary by area of the country but readily average $100 to $150 per year. Spaying a bitch can cost from $75 to $200, depending upon the area and the vet. The Rottweiler is an expensive breed to maintain, compared to most other breeds. Rottweilers, even with a short coat, can be quite skin sensitive and be subject to allergies. Also, the females tend to be prone to false pregnacies.


This pamphlet is designed to give readers a candid appraisal of some of the traits which are fairly typical of Rottweilers, so that people will be able to make a more knowledgeable decision regarding the suitability of the breed to their circumstances. The Rottweiler is a wonderful breed of dog, but ownership is much more complicated than many uninformed buyers have been led a to believe. The American Rottweiler Club invites you to investigate our Rottweiler, but above all; LEARN BEFORE YOU BUY!

The FCI/USRC Standard

The CKC Standard

Origin and Purpose:

The Rottweiler was developed from the dogs used by the Roman legions to herd and guard the cattle brought by them to feed their legions. The butchers of Rottweil, Germany, developed the dogs to drive cattle to market and to protect their money bags which were tied around the dogs' necks. It was an arduous task to drive the cattle and a strong dog with staying power, full of self will and physical strength was needed. In the beginning of the 20th century these dogs were found particularly well suited as a police dog, a function they still fulfil especially in Europe. 

General Appearance:

The ideal Rottweiler is an above medium-sized, robust, and powerful dog, black with clearly defined rich tan markings. His compact build denotes great strength, agility, and endurance. Males are characteristically larger, heavier boned and more masculine in appearance.  Temperament: The Rottweiler should possess a fearless expression with a self-assured aloofness that does not lend itself to immediate and indiscriminate friendships.
He has a strong willingness to work. In examining a Rottweiler, one should
  bear in mind that this dog reacts with alertness to his master and his surroundings, and in performing his function in life, the Rottweiler is not expected to submit to excessive handling by strangers. However, the judge shall dismiss from the ring any shy or vicious Rottweiler. A dog shall be judged fundamentally shy if, refusing to stand for examination it shrinks away from the judge; If it fears an unexpected approach from the rear; if it shies at sudden or unusual noises to a marked degree. A dog that attacks or attempts to attack, without provocation, either the judge, or its handler is definitely vicious. An aggressive or belligerent attitude towards other dogs shall not be deemed viciousness. 

Dogs 24 - 27 in. (60 -68 cm). Bitches 22 - 25 in. (55-63 cm). 

Proportion should always be considered rather than height alone. The length of the body, from the breastbone (sternum) to the rear of edge of the pelvis (ischium) is slightly longer than the height of the dog at the withers, the most desirable proportion being as 10 to 9. Depth of the chest should be fifty per cent of the height.  

Coat and Colour: 

Outer coat is straight, coarse, dense, medium length, lying flat. Undercoat must be present on neck and thighs. The Rottweiler should be exhibited in a natural condition without trimming, except to remove whiskers, if desired. The colour is always black with rich tan or mahogany markings. The borderline between the black and the colour should be clearly defined. The markings should be located as follows: a spot over each eye; on cheeks; as a strip around each side of the muzzle, but not on the bridge of the nose; on throat; a proportionate triangular mark on either side of the breastbone not to exceed 25 per cent of the forechest; on forelegs from carpus downward to toes; on inside of the rear legs showing down the front of the stifle and broadening out to front of rear legs from hock to toes but not eliminating the black from the back of the legs; under tail. Black pencilling markings of the toes. The undercoat is grey or black. Quantity and location of markings are important. Insufficient or excessive markings should be penalized.  


Of medium length, broad between the ears; forehead line seen in profile is moderately arched. The length of the muzzle should not exceed the distance between the stop and the occiput. The skull is preferred dry; however, some wrinkling may occur when the dog is alert. The bridge of the muzzle is straight. The muzzle is broad at the base with slight tapering towards the tip but not snipey. The nose is broad rather than round, with black nostrils. The lips are always black with the corners tightly closed. The flews should not be to pronounced. The inner mouth pigment is dark. A pink mouth is to be penalized. The teeth are 42 in number (20 upper and 22 lower). They are strong and should be correctly placed meeting in a scissors bite- lower incisors touching inside the upper incisors. Eyes should be of medium size, moderately deep set, almond shaped with well-fitting lids.The iris should be of uniform colour, from medium to dark brown, the darker shade always preferred. Ears should be pendant, proportionately small, triangular in shape, set well apart and placed on the skull so as to make it appear broader when the dog is alert. The ear should terminate at approximately mid-cheek level. When correctly held, the inner edge will lie tightly against the cheek. 


Powerful, well muscled, moderately long with slight arch and without loose skin. 


The shoulder blade should be long and well laid back at a 45-degree angle. The elbows are tight and under the body. The distance from the withers to the elbow and the elbow to the ground is equal. The legs are strongly developed with straight, heavy bone. They are not set close together. The pasterns are strong, springy and almost perpendicular to the ground. Feet are round, compact with well arched toes, turning neither in nor out. Pads are thick and hard. Nails are short, strong and black. Dewclaws may be removed. 


The topline is firm and level, extending in a straight line from the withers to the croup. The brisket should be deep, reaching to the elbow. The ribs are well sprung. The loins short, deep, and well muscled. The flank should not be tucked up. The croup is broad, of medium length and slightly sloping.  Hindquarters: The angulation of the hindquarters balances that of the forequarters. The slope of the pelvis from the horizontal is between 20-30 degrees. The bone of the upper thigh is fairly long and the thigh is broad and well muscled. The stifle joint is moderately angulated. The lower thigh is long, powerfully muscled leading to a strong hock joint. The metatarsus is perpendicular to the ground. Viewed from the rear, the hind legs are straight and perpendicular to the ground. The feet are somewhat longer than the front feet, with well arched toes turning neither in nor out. Dewclaws must be removed. 

Tail:  (scroll down for illustrations of Rottweiler tails)

The tail is normally carried in a horizontal position giving the appearance of an elongated topline. It is carried above the horizontal when the dog is excited. The tail is normally docked short close to the body. The set of the tail is more
important than length.  


The Rottweiler is a trotter; the motion is harmonious, sure, powerful and unhindered, with a strong fore-reach and a powerful rear drive. Front and rear legs are not thrown either in or out, as the imprint of the hind feet should touch that of the forefeet. In a trot, the forequarters and hindquarters are mutually co-ordinated while the back remains firm. As speed increases the legs will converge under the body towards the centre line. 


The foregoing is a description of the ideal Rottweiler. Any structural fault that detracts from the ideal must be penalized to the extent of the deviation. Included as faults are: pink mouth, wavy coat, insufficient markings, undercoat showing through outercoat. Faults considered serious are: lack of proportion, undersize, oversize, level bite, yellow eyes, eyes not of same colour, eyes unequal in size or shape, hairless eyelids, excessively short coat, curly or open coat, lack of undercoat, white markings any place on dog (a few white hairs do not constitute a marking), excessive markings, light-coloured markings, up to four missing pre-molars. 


Undershot, overshot, more than four missing pre-molars and/or any other missing tooth, long coat, any base colour other than black, total absence of markings. 

I've decided to add some drawings of Rottweilers with tails, just so you could see the different type of tail sets.

The look of the Rottweiler we recognize.

This Rottweiler has a tail set often seen in Sweden.
Note the shortened croup.

The tail is an elongation of the topline. 






The contents of/herein [entire site, text, artwork, HTML, et cetera and
all linked subpages] of Trojan® Rottweilers Homepage is © Copyright 2000-to present.

Not to be used without Website Owner's Permission.